SUMMARY (ÖZET): Afghanistan, antik çağlardan beri Türk yurdu olmuştur. Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanlığı Forsunda yıldızlarla temsil edilen Türk devletlerinin çoğu Afganistan’da ya da Afganistan coğrafyasının bir bölümünde kurulmuştur. Özellikle Babür Türk İmparatorluğu, Gazne İmparatorluğu ve Selçuklu İmparatorluğu  bunlardan en çok iz bırakanlardır. Türkler Kuzey Afganistan’da yoğun olarak yaşamaktadır ve Kuzey Afganistan’a hâlâ “Güney Türkistan” denilmektedir. Afganistan’da hala önemli bir Türk nüfusu yaşamaktadır ve Afgan mozaiği içinde Türk kültürü önemli bir yere sahip olmuştur. Afganistan’ın son otuz yılına damga vuran Türk lideri Raşit Dostum şimdi devlet başkanı baş yardımcısıdır ve Afganistan’ın üçüncü resmi dili olarak Türkçe’nin kabul edilmesinde çok etkili olmuştur. Özbek Türklerinden Abdul Rauf İbrahimi 27 Şubat 2011’de Afganistan’da meclis başkanlığına seçilmiştir.

Afganistan Türk ilişkileri, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu döneminde başlamış ve özellikle Mustafa Kemal Atatürk döneminde en üst düzeye ulaşmıştır. Atatürk’ün ölümünden sonra ilişkiler yavaşlamıştır. Rus istilası sırasında durmuş olsa bile,  yine de Türkiye özel bir statüye sahip olmaya devam etmiştir. Afganistan ve Türkiye hala çok yakın bir ilişki sürdürmektedir.

Afganistan’da Türk kültürü, toplumun her kesimine yayılmış bir genetik özellik taşıyor. Afganistan’da yaygın olarak kullanılan ve Farsça konuşulan Dari ve Peştu dilleri çok sayıda Türkçe kelime barındırmaktadır. Çalışmamızda, Afganistan’da her alanda yoğun olarak görülen Türk kültürlerinin izleri anlatılmaya çalışılacaktır.

INTRODUCTION:

Afghanistan has been a Turkish dormant since ancient times. Most of the states represented by stars in the Presidential Flag of the Republic of Turkey have been established in Afghanistan, or a part of Afghanistan’s geography. Especially the Babur Turkish empire the Ghazni Turkish empire and Seljuk empire are the ones that left the most traces of them. After Muslim religion came to the region, Muslims were mixed with Turkish culture. In 2003, the Turkish language was accepted as the third official language in the Afghan constitution.               Turks live intensively in northern Afghanistan and north Afghanistan is still called “South Turkistan”. Along with the elements that are still missing in Afghanistan, a considerable Turkish population is living, and Turkish culture has an important place in the Afghan mosaic. The Turkish leader, Rashid Dostum, who has struck Afghanistan’s thirty-year mark, is now the deputy head of state and has been very influential when Turkish was regarded as the third official language of Afghanistan in 2003. Abdul Rauf Ibrahimi from the Uzbek Turks was elected president of parliament on 27 February 2011 in Afghanistan.

Afghanistan Turkish relations started at the time of Ottoman Empire, especially Mustafa Kemal Atatürk period has reached the highest level. After Atatürk’s death, relations slowed down. Even if it was stopped during the Russian invasion, it continued to have a special status. Afghanistan and Turkey still have a very close relationship going on.

In Afghanistan, Turkish culture carries a genetic trait that has spread to every part of the society. Turkish words in Dari language, which is widely used in Afghanistan and based on Persian language, take place very effectively and are easily understood after a while. In our work, traces of Turkish cultures, which are seen to be intense even in languages spoken in Afghanistan, will be tried to be taken with examples from every branch of life.

It is said in Afghanistan “no Afghan was ever killed by a Turkish bullet” and “no Afghan trained by Turks has ever betrayed his country”.

Afghanistan was also the second nation to recognise the Republic of Turkey, after the Soviet Union, on 1 March 1923.[2]

A recent survey in Kabul of 1,259 people shows that Afghanistan rely mostly on Turkey, and consider Turkey to be Afghanistan’s one and only true, best friend (as of July 2012). It is also stated how “Afghan people love Turkish soldiers in Afghanistan like their sons”.[3] Afghanistan are also constantly referred to ‘brothers’ in Turkey. Generally it is said that “Turkey is Afghanistan’s closest neighbor without common borders”.[4] Afghans respect and trust the Turkish Army. It would not be an exaggeration if I say they don’t see the Turks as foreigners.[5]

1. HISTORY OF TURKS IN AFGHANISTAN

Afghanistan is one of the countries where Turks spread throughout history and the states they founded, Until the middle of the century, they dominated this country and its political and social structure.[6]

All nations and religions living in Afghanistan, which is dominated by Turks for about 2000 years, have protected their assets.[7]

The first Turkish state established in Afghanistan was Sakas(Iskits) in the II.century B.C.[8] The Sakas were destroyed between 140 and 130 BC by the Yue-chi dynasty, which ruled northern Afghanistan.[9]

The Kushans ( a branch of the Yue-chi dynasty) have managed to capture all of Afghanistan and even the Indian lands.[10] The sovereignty of the Kushans was destroyed in AD 425 with the emergence of Akhuns (Eftalites), another Turkish tribe. Akhuns From A.D. 480 onwards, they established the vast Afghanistan Akhun (Eftalit) state, which includes Belh, Taharistan, Kabul, Gazni, Zabul and Kandahar. Akhunlar state In the middle of the VI.century (in 552) it was abandoned by the Gokturks.[11] The Akhuns who disintegrated their states did not leave the lands of Afghanistan and they continued to live there as Halachars.[12] Between 560 and 650 A.D., the north-eastern regions of Afghanistan were under the rule of the Turgishes (Western Turks).[13]

Towards the end of the VII. century, the Afghanistan lands were invaded by Arab armies, spreading Islam, and Islam spread quickly in Afghanistan, although Arabs remained in Afghanistan for a short time. After this date Afghan Turks were influenced by Islam.

In the second half of the IX. century, the Samanites, which were established in Iran, invaded the large part of Afghanistan. The majority of the Samani armies were also Turks. Towards the end of the X. century, the Turks, who were in the Samani armies left them upon the beginning of the weakening of the Samani State and established the Gazne State on April 20, 977 as the center of Gazne in Afghanistan under the leadership of Sebük Tekin.[14]

In 1040, Turkish domination in Afghanistan passed to the Seljuks, another Turkish state. After 1220, the Mongols invaded Afghanistan and dominated the country for nearly 150 years.

Mongol domination, by the end of the XIV. century,  was destroyed by Timur, who established a strong state in which he gave his name by bringing together the Turkish tribes left in Central Asia. Timur’s grandson, Mohammad Babur, established a new Turkish state in Afghanistan in 1505, which will continue Turkish domination in Afghanistan for a longer time.[15]

Nadir Shah, another Turk, dominated Afghanistan from 1734 to 1747.[16] After the death of Nadir Shah, Ahmet Khan Abdali, the leader of the Afghan Abdali tribe, who served as commander in his army, passed the administration. Then in the Afghanistan it was the end of the Turkish rule.Ahmet Han Abdali gave the name to Afghanistan for the first time in this new state. Afghan Empire in the second half of the XVIII. century, became the second largest Islamic state after the Ottoman Empire.[17]

2. TURKS SERVED IN AFGHANISTAN:

Afghan king Ahmet Han Abdali wanted to fight against the Iranian danger with the Ottoman State but he did not get any results from his attempts.

During the Ottoman – Russian War 1877 – 1878 Sultan II. Abdulhamit sent an embassy delegation to gain the support of Afghanistan. Afghan King Şir Ali Khan has received a very cold offer and has not accepted to help.[18]

During the period of King Habibullah Khan (1901-1919), it appears that Turkish education began to show its effect in the cultural environment of Afghanistan. Turkish experts have begun to be invited to work in Afghanistan during Habibullah Khan. Mahmut Tarzi was the one who started this business.[19] Many Turkish intellectuals went to Afghanistan and served. One of them was Mehmet Fazli.[20] The first state hospital in Afghanistan was established in Kabul in 1913 by Turkish doctors who went there.

At the beginning of World War I, two separate delegations of Turks and Germans were sent to convince Afghanistan to fight against the Ottoman Empire and Germany, but no results were obtained.[21]

Mustafa Kemal Pasha talked about the events in Egypt, India, Afghanistan, Syria – Iraq, Russia, North Caucasus, Azerbaijan and Georgia, speaking on 23 July 1919 when he opened the Erzurum Congress. In this talk, he said: “The Afghan army is also fighting against the British nationality destruction policy. The British newspapers admit that the border tribes they rely on joined to Afghanistan and that British soldiers have to retreat.”[22]

The former Commander of the Fourth Army of the Ottoman Empire and Minister of the Navy Cemal Pasha played a major role in the development of friendship between Turks and Afghans while on the run. Cemal Pasha was active in Afghanistan from 1920 to 1921. Cemal Pasha was respected by King Amanullah Khan in Afghanistan, made many military arrangements, and wrote several reciprocal letters to coordinate with Mustafa Kemal Pasha. After a while, Cemal Pasha was killed on 23 July 1922 in Tbilisi after two assassinations of Armenians.[23]

Afghanistan was also the second nation to recognise the Republic of Turkey, after the Soviet Union.[24] The first treaty between the young Turkish Republic and Afghanistan was signed on 1 March 1921 in Moscow. According to this treaty, Turkey was recognizing the independency of Afghanistan. Moreover if one side would be under attack, other side would also consider itself was treated in the same negative way. In terms of this treaty Turkey would send teachers, technical experts and army officers to Afghanistan in the framework of cultural aid.[25]

On 18 August 1920 Abdurrahman Samadani Bey was appointed Turkey’s representative to Afghanistan. Abdurrahman Samadani Bey originally is an Afghan. He participated in the Turkish army during the Balkan War. It is one of the Afghans fighting voluntarily in the Turkish army during the Balkan War, the First World War and Turkish National War. He has been an officer in Turkish army for years and has gained the trust of Mustafa Kemal Pasha.[26] Sultan Ahmet Han was appointed as the Ankara ambassador of Afghanistan.[27] At the opening ceremony of Afghanistan’s Ankara embassy, Mustafa Kemal Pasha pulled the Afghan flag personally. The people of Ankara liked the Afghan ambassador very much, and the people who came out mosque on the religious holidays first visited the Afghan embassy.[28]

For the first time as the Turkish ambassador to Afghanistan, the Medina Hero Lieutenant General Ömer Fahrettin (TURKKAN) Pasha was appointed. After a three-month journey, he reached Kabul on June 25, 1922, where he was welcomed with extraordinary performances and ceremonies.[29]

The Turkish victory against the Greece, Britain, France, Italy and Armenians was celebrated with great joy in Afghanistan as if it was a national holiday. The wave of Afghans came to greet the Turkish embassy. Likewise, the Indian, Buharian and Turkestan citizens in Kabul also celebrated the Turkish embassy. On Friday, September 15, 1922, prayers and speeches were made in Afghanistan for the Turkish victory.[30]

The Turkish Military Experts Panel was sent to Afghanistan on 21 October 1928. Lieutenant General Kâzım (ORBAY) was brought to the head of Afghanistan General Staff as  chief by Amanullah Han.[31]

Priority has been given to education and teaching in Turkey’s assistance to Afghanistan. Afghan youth have been trained by Turkish teachers in both Turkey and Afghanistan. Turkey has given scholarships to many Afghans, and has taught them in Turkish high schools and faculties. On the other hand, Turkey, supported education in Afghanistan by establishing educational institutions and sending teachers and professors to teach Afghan youth in their own country. In short, Turkey has made considerable contributions to the preparation and development of Afghanistan’s new staff during the period of Ataturk.[32]

3. TURKISH LANGUAGE IN AFGHANİSTAN:

Turkish is spoken by Uzbeks and Turkmens in Afghanistan. In the 2003 Constitution, Turkish has become one of the official languages. Raşit Dostum’s influence was too much in the acceptance of this. The Dari and Pashto languages used as offical langugage in Afghanistan also contain a very large number of Turkish words.[33]

4. IMPORTANT TURKISH CULTURE FIGURES IN AFGHANISTAN:

Nasrettin Hodja is one of the common figures of Turkish Culture. Known as Nasrettin Hodja in Turkey, it is known as Molla Nasreddin in Afghanistan and some Asian countries. Hodja is a common figure in Turkish and Afghan culture.[34]

Ali Şir Nevai is a Turkish expatriate who is the vizier and advisor of the famous Turkish ruler Hüseyin Baykara and accepted as one of the greatest poets of Turkish. He was a Central Asian poet, writer, politician, linguist, mystic, and painter.[35] He was the greatest representative of Chagatai (Turkish dialect) literature.[36] Nava’i believed that the Turkish language was superior to Persian for literary purposes, and defended this belief in his work called Muhakamat al-Lughatayn. He emphasized his belief in the richness, precision, and malleability of Turkic vocabulary as opposed to Persian.[37] Because of his distinguished Chagatai language poetry, Nava’i is considered by many throughout the Turkish-speaking world to be the founder of early Turkish literature. Many places and institutions in Central Asia are named after him.[38]

The so-called “Afghan Carpets” also carry traces of Turkish culture and the majority of them are produced by Afghan Turks in northern Afghanistan.[39]

Buzkasi (Grey goat- Oğlak Tutmaç- Goat capture), (a very popular game in Afghanistan), is a Turkish game played in Turkish satates of Central Asia since ancient times.[40]

Today Afghan cuisine is very similar to Turkish cuisine and carries traces from Turkish culture. Turks who go down to Afghanistan are not strangers to food because they have a typical middle asian cuisine, very similar to the Turkish cuisine with their meaty rice( etli pirinç pilavı), pudding (muhallebi) and ravioli (mantı) etc.[41]

5.MAVLANA JALAL AD-DIN RUMI:

                Mawlana Celaddin Rumi is a cultural bridge between the cities of Balkh in Afghanistan and Konya in Turkey. Konya and Balkh are Sister cities.[42] He is most commonly called Rumi in English. Rumi was born to native Persian-speaking parents,[43] Mawlana  was born on September 30, 1207 in the town of Vahş in the Balkh region of Horasan, within the borders of todays Afghanistan. Mother was the daughter of Balkh Emir Rukneddin; Father’s grandmother  was the Princess of Fars from the Harezmshahs dynasty, Melîke-i Cihan Emetullah Sultan.  Bahaeddin Veled left Balkh in 1212-1213 and after a long journey he came to konya and settled.[44]                Originally from the Balkh, in present-day Afghanistan. Rumi’s influence transcends national borders and ethnic divisions: IraniansTajiksTurksGreeksPashtuns, other Central Asian Muslims, and the Muslims of South Asia have greatly appreciated his spiritual legacy for the past seven centuries.[45] His poems have been widely translated into many of the world’s languages and transposed into various formats. Rumi has been described as the “most popular poet” and the “best selling poet” in the United States.[46][12][13] Rumi’s works are written mostly in Persian, but occasionally he also used TurkishArabic, and Greek, in his verse.[47]  His Mathnawī, composed in Konya, is considered one of the greatest poems of the Persian language.[48][19][20] About his Ethnicty he said Although I am speaking Persian, my original language is Turkish.(“Aslem Türk-est egerci hinduguyem” Her ne kadar Farsça söylüyorsam da, aslım Türk’tür.)[49]

                    Today, the Turkish Republic carries out the landscaping works of Balkh city with the project of the restoration of the house of Mevlana and his father Sultan Veled’s medrese (school).[50]

CONCLUSION:

Turkish culture has a very important place in the Afghan mosaic. When we examine the history, culture, literature, language, customs and daily life of Afghanistan and daily life, in short, traces of Turkish culture are found in every area. Turkish friendship is seen intensely not only in Turks living in Afghanistan but also in other ethnic backgrounds. The Turkish military staff and citizens who go to Afghanistan are not seen as foreigners and the citizens of the Republic of Turkey do not feel alienated there. The Republic of Turkey continues to intensively help Afghanistan. Our greatest asset is that the our sister country Afghanistan has the peace as soon as possible.

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GARDET Louis, Religion and Culture in the The Cambridge History of Islam—Part VIII: Islamic Society and Civilization, edited by P. M. Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis, Cambridge University Press (1977), p. 586

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Kardeş Mutfak: Afganistan,Mutfak Rehberi Dergisi, yıl 2 Sayı 12, May 1996, Istanbul, p.66-72

KORKMAZ Özlem, Afganistan’a Türk Yardımı (1920 – 1960), Afganistan Üzerine Araştırmalar, Tarih ve Tabiat Vakfı Yayınları, İstanbul, 2002, p.215

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MAKSUDİ Sadri, Türk Tarihinin Ana Hatları, (1-İskitler – Sakalar), 1933, p. 14

McHENRY Robert,  (1993). Navā’ī, (Mir) ‘Alī ShīrEncyclopædia Britannica. 8 (15th ed.). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. p. 563

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NASR Seyyed Hossein, Islamic Art and Spirituality, Suny Press, 1987. p. 115

ÖZCAN Azmi, Nadir Şah ve Afganistan, Afganistan Üzerine Araştırmalar, Yay. Haz. Dr. Ali Ahmetbeyoğlu, TATAV Yayınları, İstanbul, 2002, p. 50

ÖZERKAN Fulya, Turkish flag ‘badge of honor’ in Afghanistan, KABUL – Hürriyet Daily News, 2/14/2010, http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/default.aspx?pageid=438&n=turkish-flag-badge-of-honor-in-afghanistan-2010-02-14

SARIHAN Zeki, Kurtuluş Savaşımızda Türk – Afgan  İlişkileri, Analiz Basım Yayın, İstanbul, 2002, p. 15

SCHİMMEL Annemarie, The Triumphal Sun: A Study of the Works of Jalaloddin Rumi, SUNY Press, 1993, p. 193

SELİM Yavuz, Afganistan ve Dostum, Ankara,2004

ŞİMŞİR Bilal.N.; Atatürk ve Afganistan, Avrasya Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi (ASAM) Yayınları, Ankara 2002, p. 10

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Türk İstiklal Harbi’ne Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademelerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri; Genelkurmay Başkanlığı Yayınları, Ankara, 1989, p. 232

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http://www.aa.com.tr/en/politics/471256–afghan-envoy-to-turkey-quot-turkish-soldiers-are-loved-in-afghanistan-quot

http://www.academia.edu/3177945/Turkey_Shoulders_Afghanistan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afghanistan%E2%80%93Turkey_relations

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http://www.afghan-web.com/culture/jokes.html; http://www.thefullwiki.org/Nasreddin

Maria Eva (2013). ʿAlī Shīr Navāʾī, http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/search?s.au=%22Subtelny%2C+Maria+E.%22&s.f.s2_parent_title=Encyclopaedia+of+Islam%2C+THREE

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Mevlana ve Türklük

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[1] Firat University Ph.D. student

[2] http://nation.com.pk/columns/22-Feb-2015/natural-allies;  http://www.aa.com.tr/en/turkey/470861–turkey-offers-condolences-to-victims-of-afghan-avalanche

[3] http://www.aa.com.tr/en/politics/471256–afghan-envoy-to-turkey-quot-turkish-soldiers-are-loved-in-afghanistan-quot

[4] http://www.academia.edu/3177945/Turkey_Shoulders_Afghanistan

[5] Fulya Özerkan, Turkish flag ‘badge of honor’ in Afghanistan, KABUL – Hürriyet Daily News, 2/14/2010, http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/default.aspx?pageid=438&n=turkish-flag-badge-of-honor-in-afghanistan-2010-02-14

[6] Erdoğan Merçil, Afganistan Türkleri, Türk Dünyası El Kitabı, Ankara,1976, p. 1154

[7] Muhammed Asıf Yoldaş, Afganistan Türklerinin Dünü – Bugünü ve Yarını, 2023, Sayı 34, 15 Şubat 2004, p. 70

[8] Sadri Maksudi, Türk Tarihinin Ana Hatları, (1-İskitler – Sakalar), 1933, p. 14

[9] A. Zeki Velidi Togan, Umumi Türk Tarihine Giriş, C. 1, En Eski Devirlerden 16’ncı Asra Kadar, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Fen – Edebiyat Fakültesi Yayınları, İstanbul, 1970, p. 33

[10] Kıyameddin Ral Barlas, Afgan  Kabilelerinin Türklük  ile Alakaları Abdaliler Eftalitler (Akhunlar)’in Torunları mı?, Türk Kültürü Dergisi Sayı 278, Yıl: 24, Haziran 1986, p. 363; ErdoğanMerçil, p. 1154; Sadri Maksudi, p.42.

[11] A. Zeki Velidi Togan, p. 43

[12] Muhammed Asıf Yoldaş, p. 71

[13] Kıyameddin Ral Barlas, p. 363; ErdoğanMerçil, p. 1154

[14] Firuz Fevzi, Afganistan’da Türk Kültürü ve Edebiyatı Üzerine Bir Araştırma, Kabil Üniversitesi Türkoloji Bölümü Öğretim Üyesi, Batman Üniversitesi Journal of Life Science sayı 1, 2012, p. 549

[15] Kıyameddin Ral Barlas, p. 363, Erdoğan Merçil, p. 1154

[16] Azmi Özcan, Nadir Şah ve Afganistan, Afganistan Üzerine Araştırmalar, Yay. Haz. Dr. Ali Ahmetbeyoğlu, TATAV Yayınları, İstanbul, 2002, p. 50

[17] Zeki Sarıhan, Kurtuluş  Savaşımızda Türk – Afgan İlişkileri, Analiz Basım Yayın, İstanbul, 2002, p. 15

[18] Bilal.N.ŞİMŞİR, Atatürk ve Afganistan, Avrasya Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi (ASAM) Yayınları, Ankara 2002, p. 10; Dwight E Lee, A Turkish Mission to Afghanistan, 1877, The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Sep., 1941), pp. 335-356, Chicago University Press, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1871579

[19] Rahmanhoca İmamhocayev, Afganistan ve Türkiye, Atatürk Üniversitesi, Türkiyat Araştırmaları Enstitüsü Dergisi, Sayı: 17, 2001, p. 264 – 265

[20] Mehmet Fazlı, Afganistan’da  Bir  Jöntürk,  Çev.  Kenan  Karabulut,  Yaylacık  Matbaacılık, İstanbul 2007, p. 59 – 60

[21] K. Tuncer Çağlayan, Afganistan’da Bir Türk Alman Heyetinin Faaliyetlerine Karşı İngiltere’nin Politikaları, Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, C. 17, Sayı 50, Temmuz 2001, p. 410; Halil Bal, Afganistan Türkiye İlişkilerinin Başlıca yönleri, Afganistan Üzerine Araştırmalar, Yayına Hazırlayan Ali Ahmetbeyoğlu, TATAV yayınları, İstanbul, 2002, p. 248

[22] Zeki Sarıhan, p. 44

[23] Feridun Kandemir, Peygamberimizin Gölgesinde Son Türkler (Medine Müdafaası), Yağmur Yay., İstanbul, 1974, p. 561

[24] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afghanistan%E2%80%93Turkey_relations

[25]Cansu Arısoy, Turkey Shoulders Afghanistan, Bilgesam, Stratejik Araştırma Merkezi, 12/04/2010, http://www.bilgesam.org/en/incele/1450/-turkey-shoulders-afghanistan/#.WGjXK1OLTIU

[26] Bilal N.Şimşir, p.39

[27] Bilal N.Şimşir; Atatürk ve Yabancı Devlet Adamları,C.1,Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara, 1993, p.1

[28] Zeki Sarıhan, p. 151

[29] Bilal N.Şimşir, Atatürk ve Afganistan, Avrasya Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi (ASAM) Yayınları, Ankara 2002, p.80

[30] Bilal N.Şimşir, p.111

[31] Türk İstiklal Harbi’ne Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademelerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri; Genelkurmay Başkanlığı Yayınları, Ankara, 1989, p. 232.

[32] Özlem Korkmaz, Afganistan’a Türk Yardımı (1920 – 1960), Afganistan Üzerine Araştırmalar, Tarih ve Tabiat Vakfı Yayınları, İstanbul, 2002, p.215

[33] Yavuz Selim, Afganistan ve Dostum, Ankara,2004

[34] Süleyman, Eroğlu, Floransa Riccardiana Kütüphanesi’nde Elyazma Bir Nasrettin Hoca Kitabı, Celal Bayar Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Cilt:13, Sayı:1, Mart 2015, p.468; http://www.hindi-comedy.com/mullah-nasruddin-best-known-trickster-and-wit-in-human-history; Uluslar arası Nasrettin Hoca Çalışmaları Semineri Sonuç Bildirisi, http://www.unesco.org.tr/dokumanlar/somut_olmayan_km/nasreddin_hoca.pdf; http://www.afghan-web.com/culture/jokes.html; http://www.thefullwiki.org/Nasreddin

[35] Maria Eva ʿAlī Shīr Navāʾī, (2013). http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/search?s.au=%22Subtelny%2C+Maria+E.%22&s.f.s2_parent_title=Encyclopaedia+of+Islam%2C+THREE

[36] Robert McHenry, ed. (1993). Navā’ī, (Mir) ‘Alī ShīrEncyclopædia Britannica8 (15th ed.). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. p. 563.

[37] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali-Shir_Nava’i

[38] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali-Shir_Nava’i

[39] http://www.jayhon.com/turkce/?cat=3

[40] Geçmişten Günümüze Türk-Afgan İlişkileri Genkur. ATASE Başkanlığı Yayınları, Ankara 2009, p.23

[41]Kardeş Mutfak: Afganistan,Mutfak Rehberi Dergisi, yıl 2 Sayı 12, May 1996, Istanbul, p.66-72

[42] http://www.konya.bel.tr/haberayrinti.php?haberID=3331

[43] Annemarie Schimmel, The Triumphal Sun: A Study of the Works of Jalaloddin Rumi, SUNY Press, 1993, p. 193: “Rumi’s mother tongue was Persian, but he had learned during his stay in Konya, enough Turkish and Greek to use it, now and then, in his verse”; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumi; Seyyed Hossein Nasr, “Islamic Art and Spirituality”, Suny Press, 1987. p. 115: “Jalal al-Din was born in a major center of Persian culture, Balkh, from Persian speaking parents, and is the product of that Islamic Persian culture which in the 7th/13th century dominated the ‘whole of the eastern lands of Islam and to which present day Persians as well as Turks, Afghans, Central Asian Muslims and the Muslims of the Indo-Pakistani and the Muslims of the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent are heir. It is precisely in this world that the sun of his spiritual legacy has shone most brilliantly during the past seven centuries. The father of Jalal al-Din, Muhammad ibn Husayn Khatibi, known as Baha al-Din Walad and entitled Sultan al-‘ulama’, was an outstanding Sufi in Balkh connected to the spiritual lineage of Najm al-Din Kubra.”; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumi

[44] https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mevl%C3%A2n%C3%A2_Cel%C3%A2ledd%C3%AEn-i_R%C3%BBm%C3%AE

[45] Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Islamic Art and Spirituality, Suny Press, 1987. p. 115

[46]Jane Ciabattari, (21 October 2014). Why is Rumi the best-selling poet in the US?. Retrieved 2016-08-22, http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20140414-americas-best-selling-poet

[47] G. Meyer, 1895. Die griechischen Verse in Rabâbnâma. Byzantinische Zeitschrift; Greek Verses of Rumi & Sultan Walad. uci.edu. 22 April 2009. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013, https://web.archive.org/web/20131104125826/http://www.tlg.uci.edu/~opoudjis/Play/rumiwalad.html

[48] Louis Gardet, Religion and Culture in the The Cambridge History of Islam—Part VIII: Islamic Society and Civilization, edited by P. M. Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis, Cambridge University Press (1977), p. 586; C.E. Bosworth, “Turkmen Expansion towards the west” in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled “From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century”, UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumi

[49] https://guneyturkistan.wordpress.com/2009/02/12/mevlana-ve-turkluk/

[50]http://www.tika.gov.tr/tr/haber/tika_mevlana_projesinde_ilk_adimi_atti-19816; http://www.hakimiyet.com/gundem/hz-mevlana-koyu-kuruldu-h1195327.html

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